- In the fourth century CE, while the Goths were living in the the north eastern areas of Europe (in current day Romania, Bulgaria, and the Ukraine), a missionary named Wulfila brought them the Bible in their own gothic language. The text of this Gothic Bible, attests to early forms of the German language, which bears some resemblance to Old English.
- Below is reproduced Mark 16, in Gothic, Greek, and English. For more about the Gothic Bible, go to the Wulfila project, linked here: http://www.wulfila.be
- Mark 16:1
- CA jah inwisandins sabbate dagis Marja so Magdalene jah Marja so Iakobis jah Salome usbauhtedun aromata, ei atgaggandeins gasalbodedeina ina.
- — καὶ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου μαρία ἡ μαγδαληνὴ καὶ μαρία ἡ [τοῦ] ἰακώβου καὶ σαλώμη ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα ἵνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν.
- — And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.
- Mark 16:2
- CA jah filu air þis dagis afarsabbate atiddjedun du þamma hlaiwa at urrinnandin sunnin.
- — καὶ λίαν πρωῒ τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων ἔρχονται ἐπὶ τὸ μνημεῖον ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου.
- — And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.
- Mark 16:3
- CA jah qeþun du sis misso: hvas afwalwjai unsis þana stain af daurom þis hlaiwis?
- — καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἑαυτάς, τίς ἀποκυλίσει ἡμῖν τὸν λίθον ἐκ τῆς θύρας τοῦ μνημείου;
- — And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?
- Mark 16:4
- CA jah insaihvandeins gaumidedun þammei afwalwiþs ist sa stains; was auk mikils abraba.
- — καὶ ἀναβλέψασαι θεωροῦσιν ὅτι ἀποκεκύλισται ὁ λίθος, ἦν γὰρ μέγας σφόδρα.
- — And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
- Mark 16:5
- CA jah atgaggandeins in þata hlaiw gasehvun juggalauþ sitandan in taihswai biwaibidana wastjai hveitai; jah usgeisnodedun.
- — καὶ εἰσελθοῦσαι εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον εἶδον νεανίσκον καθήμενον ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς περιβεβλημένον στολὴν λευκήν, καὶ ἐξεθαμβήθησαν.
- — And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.
- Mark 16:6
- CA þaruh qaþ du im: ni faurhteiþ izwis, Iesu sokeiþ Nazoraiu þana ushramidan; nist her, urrais, sai þana staþ þarei galagidedun ina.
- — ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς, μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε: ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον: ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε: ἴδε ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν.
- — And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.
- Mark 16:7
- CA akei gaggiþ qiþiduh du siponjam is jah du Paitrau þatei faurbigaggiþ izwis in Galeilaian; þaruh ina gasaihviþ, swaswe qaþ izwis.
- — ἀλλὰ ὑπάγετε εἴπατε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ πέτρῳ ὅτι προάγει ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν γαλιλαίαν: ἐκεῖ αὐτὸν ὄψεσθε, καθὼς εἶπεν ὑμῖν.
- — But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.
- Mark 16:8
- CA jah usgaggandeins af þamma hlaiwa gaþlauhun; dizuh~þan~sat ijos reiro jah usfilmei, jah ni qeþun mannhun waiht; ohtedun sis auk.
- — καὶ ἐξελθοῦσαι ἔφυγον ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου, εἶχεν γὰρ αὐτὰς τρόμος καὶ ἔκστασις: καὶ οὐδενὶ οὐδὲν εἶπαν, ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ.
- — And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.
- Mark 16:9
- CA usstandands þan in maurgin frumin sabbato ataugida <sik> frumist Marjin þizai Magdalene, af þizaiei uswarp sibun unhulþons.
- — [[ἀναστὰς δὲ πρωῒ πρώτῃ σαββάτου ἐφάνη πρῶτον μαρίᾳ τῇ μαγδαληνῇ, παρ’ ἧς ἐκβεβλήκει ἑπτὰ δαιμόνια.
- — Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.
- Mark 16:10
- CA soh gaggandei gataih þaim miþ imma wisandam, qainondam jah gretandam.
- — ἐκείνη πορευθεῖσα ἀπήγγειλεν τοῖς μετ’ αὐτοῦ γενομένοις πενθοῦσι καὶ κλαίουσιν:
- — And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.
- Mark 16:11
- CA jah eis hausjandans þatei libaiþ jah gasaihvans warþ fram izai, ni galaubidedun.
- — κἀκεῖνοι ἀκούσαντες ὅτι ζῇ καὶ ἐθεάθη ὑπ’ αὐτῆς ἠπίστησαν.
- — And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
- Mark 16:12
- CA afaruh þan þata ….
- Speyer …. twaim ize ataugiþs warþ in anþaramma farwa, gaggandam du wehsa:
- — μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα δυσὶν ἐξ αὐτῶν περιπατοῦσιν ἐφανερώθη ἐν ἑτέρᾳ μορφῇ πορευομένοις εἰς ἀγρόν:
- — After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.
- Mark 16:13
- Speyer jah jainai galeiþandans gataihun þaim anþaraim; niþ~þaim galaubidedun.
- — κἀκεῖνοι ἀπελθόντες ἀπήγγειλαν τοῖς λοιποῖς: οὐδὲ ἐκείνοις ἐπίστευσαν.
- — And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.
- Mark 16:14
- Speyer bi spedistin þan anakumbjandam þaim ainlibim ataugida, jah idweitida ungalaubein ize jah harduhairtein, unte þaim gasaihvandam ina urrisanana, ni galaubidedun.
- — ὕστερον [δὲ] ἀνακειμένοις αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἕνδεκα ἐφανερώθη, καὶ ὠνείδισεν τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν καὶ σκληροκαρδίαν ὅτι τοῖς θεασαμένοις αὐτὸν ἐγηγερμένον οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν.
- — Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.
- Mark 16:15
- Speyer jah qaþ du im: gaggandans in þo manaseþ alakjo, merjaiþ þo aiwaggeljon allai þizai gaskaftai.
- — καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, πορευθέντες εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἅπαντα κηρύξατε τὸ εὐαγγέλιον πάσῃ τῇ κτίσει.
- — And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.
- Mark 16:16
- Speyer jah sa galaubjands ufdaupiþs ganisiþ; iþ saei ni galaubeiþ, afdomjada.
- — ὁ πιστεύσας καὶ βαπτισθεὶς σωθήσεται, ὁ δὲ ἀπιστήσας κατακριθήσεται.
- — He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.
- Mark 16:17
- Speyer aþþan taikns þaim galaubjandam þata afargaggiþ: in namin meinamma unhulþons uswairpand: razdom rodjand niujaim,
- — σημεῖα δὲ τοῖς πιστεύσασιν ταῦτα παρακολουθήσει: ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου δαιμόνια ἐκβαλοῦσιν, γλώσσαις λαλήσουσιν καιναῖς,
- — And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues;
- Mark 16:18
- Speyer waurmans nimand, jah jabai ingibe hva drigkaina, ni þauh im agljai; ana unhailans handuns uslagjand, jah waila wairþiþ im.
- — [καὶ ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν] ὄφεις ἀροῦσιν, κἂν θανάσιμόν τι πίωσιν οὐ μὴ αὐτοὺς βλάψῃ, ἐπὶ ἀρρώστους χεῖρας ἐπιθήσουσιν καὶ καλῶς ἕξουσιν.
- — They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.
- Mark 16:19
- Speyer þanuh þan frauja Iesus afar þatei rodida du im, usnumans warþ in himin jah gasat af taihswon gudis.
- — ὁ μὲν οὖν κύριος ἰησοῦς μετὰ τὸ λαλῆσαι αὐτοῖς ἀνελήμφθη εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ.
- — So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.
- Mark 16:20
- Speyer iþ jainai usgaggandans meridedun and allata miþ fraujin gawaurstwin jah þata waurd tulgjandin þairh þos afargaggandeins taiknins. amen.
- — ἐκεῖνοι δὲ ἐξελθόντες ἐκήρυξαν πανταχοῦ, τοῦ κυρίου συνεργοῦντος καὶ τὸν λόγον βεβαιοῦντος διὰ τῶν ἐπακολουθούντων σημείων.]]
- — And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.
- Speyer Aiwaggeljo þairh Marku ustauh. wulþus þus weiha guþ. amen.
The wonderful film by Carl Dreyer, Ordet (the Word), is based on a play by the Danish playwright Kaj Munk. For more on Munk, see below.
Christian Political Resistance: Lecture
See link: CrucifiedSaviors
Here’s a classic book in pdf, written about a hundred years ago. Though the methodology of this study has been critiqued, its intentions and impulses are sincere and constructive: to demonstrate the universal teachings and symbols within various religions, globally, from the east and the west, the south and the north, and to dismantle barriers of dogma and difference that cause suspicion and animosity.
NOTE: Asia Bibi has been released.
Quite often Christians create strict boundaries around the Christian religion. These boundaries are fences by which we demarcate insiders, separating the “insiders” from the “outsiders.”
A key emphasis of the New Testament, however, is that Christ came to break down barriers between Jews (insiders) and Gentiles (outsiders). The one who preached “blessed are the peacemakers” made peace by melting the glue that keeps the religious fence intact, namely, the fence by which we separate ourselves as insiders from others as outsiders.
The glue that keeps such fences intact is the prince of this world (the evil one) who is enlarged and magnified by fear, hatred, and bigotry.
Two Pakistani figures have been the news, internationally, as martyrs and heroes, one a Muslim boy named Aitzaz Hassan and the other a Christian woman named Asia Bibi. (For more on Asia Bibi, see link: Asia Bibi Article).
Aitzaz Hassan, a fifteen year old boy, thwarted a suicide bomber, who was entering a school in order to detonate a bomb in northern Pakistan, according to the story in the Guardian (click link): Guardian Article
Although the bomb detonated, thus killing him, Aitzaz Hassan’s intervention succeeded to protect a school full of some 2000 students.
Like the parents of the children who died at Sandy Hook, so Aitzaz Hassan’s parents magnified the boy’s generous intentions, celebrating his heroism, rather than nursing grievances or bitterness of their own.
What did this boy die for?
Suicide bombing occurs in this region as a weapon of religious militancy in sectarian warfare between Sunnis and Shi’ites.
The real enemy in the story is neither Shi’ite nor Sunni but the prince of the world or the evil one, who feeds on fear, hatred, and bigotry, the glue that keeps the fence intact, which separates insiders from outsiders.
The militant crusader believes so strongly in this fence, that s/he will kill and self-destruct (slathering on glue) in order to reinforce it, fortifying the barrier that distinguishes the elect (the insiders) from the reprobate (the outsiders).
The boy Aitzaz Hassan, himself a Muslim, stood up for principles of Islam that transcend sectarian rivalries: peace, love, and non-violence. He acted, instinctively, in a generous way that may resonate for Christians as being Christ-like.
From a Christian perspective, the self-sacrificing love exhibited by Aitzaz Hassan imitates that of Jesus.
As Jesus said: “No greater love has this than to give one’s life for one’s friends.” The friends of Jesus are those who follow God’s commandment, the greatest of which is love. Similarly, Aitzaz Hassan died on behalf of love for his friends. Love is save thousands from the bomb of murder and sectarian rivalries.
Asia Bibi, a Pakistani Christian woman, is a different kind of martyr, a woman and mother, now in prison on allegations of blasphemy. Her case has been discussed and publicized for many years.
The Supreme court of Pakistan will be handing down a verdict any day, now. Sadly, the danger of mob violence against Asia Bibi is real even should she go free.
Asia Bibi had engaged in dialogue with some Muslim women, her friends, in a Pakistani town, close to where she lives. In the course of conversation, she spoke about her own religious beliefs. She made a comment to the effect that for her, and her family, Jesus Christ is savior not Mohammed.
Consequently, she was arrested on charges of blasphemy, a charge associated with apostasy and treason. Asia Bibi is still in prison. Please see this link for an update on her case: Update Asia Bibi Case
Jesus the Lightworker
From a Christian perspective, this case follows the pattern, again, of Jesus’s Christ’s martyrdom. Jesus was put to death by the Romans on charges of treason and viewed as an enemy of the state. Rome at the time mandated emperor worship and penalized prophets who were accused of blaspheming the civic gods or undermining the religious-civic order.
Jesus Christ, the light and the lightworker, shines through acts of self-sacrificial love — whether one is Christian, Muslim, or of another religious or sectarian affiliation.
Let us consider El Nino, the Mexican healer, who blended both traditional healing modalities and Christian/Catholic faith. His festival is celebrated in Espinoza, Mexico in October and March. The October festival (Oct 19) celebrates the anniversaries of his both his death and his birth, while the March festival celebrates his saint’s day (St. Joseph).
Here are some links (please click on them):