- In the fourth century CE, while the Goths were living in the the north eastern areas of Europe (in current day Romania, Bulgaria, and the Ukraine), a missionary named Wulfila brought them the Bible in their own gothic language. The text of this Gothic Bible, attests to early forms of the German language, which bears some resemblance to Old English.
- Below is reproduced Mark 16, in Gothic, Greek, and English. For more about the Gothic Bible, go to the Wulfila project, linked here: http://www.wulfila.be
- Mark 16:1
- CA jah inwisandins sabbate dagis Marja so Magdalene jah Marja so Iakobis jah Salome usbauhtedun aromata, ei atgaggandeins gasalbodedeina ina.
- — καὶ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου μαρία ἡ μαγδαληνὴ καὶ μαρία ἡ [τοῦ] ἰακώβου καὶ σαλώμη ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα ἵνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν.
- — And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.
- Mark 16:2
- CA jah filu air þis dagis afarsabbate atiddjedun du þamma hlaiwa at urrinnandin sunnin.
- — καὶ λίαν πρωῒ τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων ἔρχονται ἐπὶ τὸ μνημεῖον ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου.
- — And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.
- Mark 16:3
- CA jah qeþun du sis misso: hvas afwalwjai unsis þana stain af daurom þis hlaiwis?
- — καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἑαυτάς, τίς ἀποκυλίσει ἡμῖν τὸν λίθον ἐκ τῆς θύρας τοῦ μνημείου;
- — And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?
- Mark 16:4
- CA jah insaihvandeins gaumidedun þammei afwalwiþs ist sa stains; was auk mikils abraba.
- — καὶ ἀναβλέψασαι θεωροῦσιν ὅτι ἀποκεκύλισται ὁ λίθος, ἦν γὰρ μέγας σφόδρα.
- — And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
- Mark 16:5
- CA jah atgaggandeins in þata hlaiw gasehvun juggalauþ sitandan in taihswai biwaibidana wastjai hveitai; jah usgeisnodedun.
- — καὶ εἰσελθοῦσαι εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον εἶδον νεανίσκον καθήμενον ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς περιβεβλημένον στολὴν λευκήν, καὶ ἐξεθαμβήθησαν.
- — And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.
- Mark 16:6
- CA þaruh qaþ du im: ni faurhteiþ izwis, Iesu sokeiþ Nazoraiu þana ushramidan; nist her, urrais, sai þana staþ þarei galagidedun ina.
- — ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς, μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε: ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον: ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε: ἴδε ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν.
- — And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.
- Mark 16:7
- CA akei gaggiþ qiþiduh du siponjam is jah du Paitrau þatei faurbigaggiþ izwis in Galeilaian; þaruh ina gasaihviþ, swaswe qaþ izwis.
- — ἀλλὰ ὑπάγετε εἴπατε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ πέτρῳ ὅτι προάγει ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν γαλιλαίαν: ἐκεῖ αὐτὸν ὄψεσθε, καθὼς εἶπεν ὑμῖν.
- — But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.
- Mark 16:8
- CA jah usgaggandeins af þamma hlaiwa gaþlauhun; dizuh~þan~sat ijos reiro jah usfilmei, jah ni qeþun mannhun waiht; ohtedun sis auk.
- — καὶ ἐξελθοῦσαι ἔφυγον ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου, εἶχεν γὰρ αὐτὰς τρόμος καὶ ἔκστασις: καὶ οὐδενὶ οὐδὲν εἶπαν, ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ.
- — And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.
- Mark 16:9
- CA usstandands þan in maurgin frumin sabbato ataugida <sik> frumist Marjin þizai Magdalene, af þizaiei uswarp sibun unhulþons.
- — [[ἀναστὰς δὲ πρωῒ πρώτῃ σαββάτου ἐφάνη πρῶτον μαρίᾳ τῇ μαγδαληνῇ, παρ’ ἧς ἐκβεβλήκει ἑπτὰ δαιμόνια.
- — Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.
- Mark 16:10
- CA soh gaggandei gataih þaim miþ imma wisandam, qainondam jah gretandam.
- — ἐκείνη πορευθεῖσα ἀπήγγειλεν τοῖς μετ’ αὐτοῦ γενομένοις πενθοῦσι καὶ κλαίουσιν:
- — And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.
- Mark 16:11
- CA jah eis hausjandans þatei libaiþ jah gasaihvans warþ fram izai, ni galaubidedun.
- — κἀκεῖνοι ἀκούσαντες ὅτι ζῇ καὶ ἐθεάθη ὑπ’ αὐτῆς ἠπίστησαν.
- — And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
- Mark 16:12
- CA afaruh þan þata ….
- Speyer …. twaim ize ataugiþs warþ in anþaramma farwa, gaggandam du wehsa:
- — μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα δυσὶν ἐξ αὐτῶν περιπατοῦσιν ἐφανερώθη ἐν ἑτέρᾳ μορφῇ πορευομένοις εἰς ἀγρόν:
- — After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.
- Mark 16:13
- Speyer jah jainai galeiþandans gataihun þaim anþaraim; niþ~þaim galaubidedun.
- — κἀκεῖνοι ἀπελθόντες ἀπήγγειλαν τοῖς λοιποῖς: οὐδὲ ἐκείνοις ἐπίστευσαν.
- — And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.
- Mark 16:14
- Speyer bi spedistin þan anakumbjandam þaim ainlibim ataugida, jah idweitida ungalaubein ize jah harduhairtein, unte þaim gasaihvandam ina urrisanana, ni galaubidedun.
- — ὕστερον [δὲ] ἀνακειμένοις αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἕνδεκα ἐφανερώθη, καὶ ὠνείδισεν τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν καὶ σκληροκαρδίαν ὅτι τοῖς θεασαμένοις αὐτὸν ἐγηγερμένον οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν.
- — Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.
- Mark 16:15
- Speyer jah qaþ du im: gaggandans in þo manaseþ alakjo, merjaiþ þo aiwaggeljon allai þizai gaskaftai.
- — καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, πορευθέντες εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἅπαντα κηρύξατε τὸ εὐαγγέλιον πάσῃ τῇ κτίσει.
- — And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.
- Mark 16:16
- Speyer jah sa galaubjands ufdaupiþs ganisiþ; iþ saei ni galaubeiþ, afdomjada.
- — ὁ πιστεύσας καὶ βαπτισθεὶς σωθήσεται, ὁ δὲ ἀπιστήσας κατακριθήσεται.
- — He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.
- Mark 16:17
- Speyer aþþan taikns þaim galaubjandam þata afargaggiþ: in namin meinamma unhulþons uswairpand: razdom rodjand niujaim,
- — σημεῖα δὲ τοῖς πιστεύσασιν ταῦτα παρακολουθήσει: ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου δαιμόνια ἐκβαλοῦσιν, γλώσσαις λαλήσουσιν καιναῖς,
- — And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues;
- Mark 16:18
- Speyer waurmans nimand, jah jabai ingibe hva drigkaina, ni þauh im agljai; ana unhailans handuns uslagjand, jah waila wairþiþ im.
- — [καὶ ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν] ὄφεις ἀροῦσιν, κἂν θανάσιμόν τι πίωσιν οὐ μὴ αὐτοὺς βλάψῃ, ἐπὶ ἀρρώστους χεῖρας ἐπιθήσουσιν καὶ καλῶς ἕξουσιν.
- — They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.
- Mark 16:19
- Speyer þanuh þan frauja Iesus afar þatei rodida du im, usnumans warþ in himin jah gasat af taihswon gudis.
- — ὁ μὲν οὖν κύριος ἰησοῦς μετὰ τὸ λαλῆσαι αὐτοῖς ἀνελήμφθη εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ.
- — So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.
- Mark 16:20
- Speyer iþ jainai usgaggandans meridedun and allata miþ fraujin gawaurstwin jah þata waurd tulgjandin þairh þos afargaggandeins taiknins. amen.
- — ἐκεῖνοι δὲ ἐξελθόντες ἐκήρυξαν πανταχοῦ, τοῦ κυρίου συνεργοῦντος καὶ τὸν λόγον βεβαιοῦντος διὰ τῶν ἐπακολουθούντων σημείων.]]
- — And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.
- Speyer Aiwaggeljo þairh Marku ustauh. wulþus þus weiha guþ. amen.
Bob Dylan, icon of the counterculture, became a born-again Christian in 1979. Reportedly, a few years later, he later reverted to the Judaism of his upbringing.
For his Jewish commitments, see: Article Bob Dylan Judaism
Here’s a description of his conversion: On Dylan’s Conversion from the UK newspaper, the The Independent
Ian Bell, in his excellent biography The Lives of Bob Dylan, recounts that though there had been some religious and biblical imagery in Dylan’s lyrics of the Sixties and early and mid-Seventies, it was in 1978 that the artist found God. And it happened in a Tucson hotel room. Certainly Dylan has gone on record saying that late in 1978 he sensed “a presence in the room that couldn’t have been anybody but Jesus”, and even felt a hand placed upon him. “Jesus put his hand on me,” he went on, “It was a physical thing. I felt it. I felt it all over me. I felt my whole body tremble. The glory of the Lord knocked me down and picked me up.
Here is a song written in his Christian period.
Here’s an interview about his Christian beliefs:
Here he is about spiritual matters, generally:
The wonderful film by Carl Dreyer, Ordet (the Word), is based on a play by the Danish playwright Kaj Munk. For more on Munk, see below.
Christian Political Resistance: Lecture
Here’s a classic film about the spiritual quest, based on Gurdjieff’s book of the same title: